You want another user to use your created Excel file, and in a certain cell (or cells, or an entire column), you want that user to be able to enter only whole numbers, from 1 to 10.

So if the user enters any other number apart from 1 to 10, or any decimal number, Excel should give an error and should not allow it.

This is possible through a feature called Data Validation.

First, select the cell, cells or column where you want to apply this validation.
Let’s say you want the entire D column to have this validation.

Then, go to Data Tab, and click on Data Validation.

In the Settings tab, under Allow, choose Whole Number.
Under Data, choose Between.
Minimum = 1
Maximum = 10
Press OK.

Now enter a number between 1 to 10 anywhere in D column, it will be accepted.
Try entering any other number, an error will appear.

This way, you can choose from a lot of option under the Allow drop-down.

Also see:
How to create a Drop-Down list in Excel
Show Custom message in Error in Data Validation